30062022 the war in europe rumbles on
if all goes to plan this is the last war in europe
meanwhile, britain fans the flames and bungs a billion pounds into the war
forget ye not, from the jewish financiers’ perspective war is good for business
the “chosen ones” think they will survive a nuclear war (mark zuckerberg, the jewish owner of facebook, spent a billion or two of his stash on an underground bunker on the island of hawaii)
does he realise his descendants will have to stay underground for thousands of years before the radioactivity dissipates?
every game in the world has as its objective the beating of the opponent/s
it is the complete opposite of what happens in heaven see Love
28062022 how many of you saw that bit of footage showing the missile striking the supermarket?
there just “happened” to be a camera showing the whole of the supermarket as the missile struck
the supermarket fitted into the frame just right with nothing showing either side of it
it wasn’t someone with a mobile phone
it was at eye level and the film was perfectly steady
the camera was about 30 metres away
you should be able to work out the rest for yourself
27062022 if you’re interested, compelling and convincing evidence that the american 2020 election was rigged Here… full video Here
26062022 this website has only just realised that its formulating of Ethnicities is incomplete
it can be seen there are three distinct ethnicities with a fourth (india-man) more or less established and a new fifth ethnicity emerging
the truth of the matter is there are in fact dozens of emerging ethnicities
some are in the millions while others are in the hundreds of thousands, tens of thousands, thousands and probably hundreds and dozens
25062022 an irreverent presentation of what ails america Here
24062022 love/life gained momentum today
the Supreme Court in america ruled that Abortion is Unlawful
when “boy meets girl” instinctively, in the vast majority of cases, more life flows from their union
yes, there are circumstances when abortion does seem appropriate
the solution to one circumstance, in particular, will cross women’s minds
the solution is highly controversial
it will be presented for discussion/debate when we “Get Going”
23062022 the reader will want to know, “when will i be reborn?”
the writer’s “comings” are reducing by half
the last one was two thousand years ago, the next one is between 2923 a.d. and 2927 a.d.
then it will be approximately 500 years (3500 a.d.)
then it will be 3750 a.d.
at this point increasing longevity means the writer will be joined by the Soul Partners of the five ethnicities while he is still living
the main point that has to be understood by mothers of daughters is, prior to Comprehension the writer never became a father to a child where the woman was living outside of Ethical Parameters
there is a very subtle mechanism at work
it can’t be cheated
the writer implores mothers to explain the situation to their daughters
do a good job of it and you can expect to be reborn anytime between 3000 a.d and 4000 a.d.
22062022 reference file 3 Here(with D-man video track)
@ 1:39 “there’s going to be food shortages, there’s going to be store shortages”
@ 2:08 “this is a very dangerous time, it’s also the climax”
@ 2:41 “we’re on the last stand o500f this deeply criminal cabal (the jewish bankers) and they’ve been largely bankrupted”
@ 2:56 “the vaccine, completely revealed now as fraud, murder and genocide – anyone who takes it now does it with full information in front of their own faces”
@ 4:57 “ukraine is a failed state… it’s got unbelievable trafficking going on… children, narcotics, white women, arms”
@ 10:29 “…ukraine, the last stand of the cabal (jewish bankers)”
@ 40:30 “they’re (jewish bankers) trying to destroy the economy while they’re trying to kill you”
@ 44:10 “it’s (ukraine) not an invasion, it’s a clean-up operation”
21062022bringing Soul Partners together
ladies, somewhere in the world there is a male made in heaven just for you
you will both be about the same age, the closer your ages the better
the male is approximately your height, you will both be about the same Weight When you are Fully Pregnant and you will have recognisably similar facial features
you will be happy with the choices he makes and you will see eye to eye on how many children you should have
20062022 the u.s.a. is systematically being destroyed from within
some states are about to make the covid vaccinations mandatory for babies and children (6 months to 5 years of age)
the “front men” leading the charge are in the pockets of the bankers (jews)
it is known that babies and toddlers have Zero or next to No chance of catching covid
that babies and toddlers are being targeted for Murder via the establishment is a new low
the babies and toddlers being injected with the gene-altering vaccines will, in turn, pass on their altered genes to their children and their children to theirs and so on
maryland, the state that is going to make the new vaccine mandatory, is, you may remember, the state that, a few months ago, Passed A “Law” that enabled a mother who didn’t want her new-born baby to let the baby die of starvation: see The Law
18062022 we are, and always will be, brand new
we are the beginning of the endless
17062022 here comes inflation
what is inflation?
it is when there is more money than there are things to buy
if you are the person who prints the money, it is a simple matter of printing as much money as you need to get what you want
a person on a fixed wage doesn’t stand a chance
if he prints as much money as he needs to get the things he wants he goes to jail… see Here
14062022 britain isn’t part of the problem
britain is the problem
sleeple, hereinafter referred to as condens, (conspiracy-deniers) are people that refuse to accept or admit there is a conspiracy and are feeding the snake in the grass
The head of the snake is the city
The City link 1
The City link 2
The City link 3
britain’s decision to leave the european union and do business in the Free Trade area means that food isn’t regulated to european standards
companies in britain will get the food cheaper but keep the prices the same
if you think the bankers and their bought and paid for lackey’s in business and government care about you, think again… see below
regulators give Blood Infected With The Aids virus taken from inmates in a u.s. prison to children in the u.k.
in case you didn’t know, people kill people for money
anything goes when it comes to making money
the city is the cause of most of the Murders in the world, past and present
if the head of the snake isn’t cut off you will become one of its victims
12062022 so, as things stand, we have five variations of mammal-man…
africa-man, peking-man, india-man, ayrian-man and pente-man who are, by and large, Evolving
of Devolving beings, there are at least eight variations, seven of which have been neutralised (rendered ineffective at a global level)
the greatest and probably the only threat to us implementing the Next Step of evolution comes from the class we call jews
understand, all are called, none are “chosen”
that there are those of First Generation, who, for a variety of reasons chose not to exist, is a burden we all have to bear
now for the good stuff
the main topic of conversation should be, “when will i be born again?” and, “how will i know if I’ve lived before”
This is the original response to the above questions
here is the current thinking…
you are married and have two children
go to your calculator
put in two
now add two and two (two generations)
then add four and four (three generations)
then add eight and eight (four generations)
keep on adding the generations for forty generations and it will give the number… 1,739,592,565,120(one trillion, seven-hundred and thirty-nine billion, five-hundred and ninety-two million, five-hundred and sixty-five thousand, one-hundred and twenty)
the above number is based on a generation being twenty-five years and is just for one couple
this website maintains that the ecosystem can accommodate 100 000 000 000 (one hundred thousand million people)
there is eight thousand million of us at the moment
there’s no way the world can sustain four-thousand million times the number of people in the world today
in order to maintain expansion we’ve got to get off the planet(see Lead Article)
the means to achieve it exist
do you want more life?
08062022britain is sending three trucks with long-range missiles to ukraine and america is sending four
the combined destructive power of both trucks is but a drop in the bucket of the total firepower already in use
so why send them?
it will give the jewish faction the opportunity to accidentally-on-purpose fire the missiles into russian territory
the russian’s can see this coming and have warned britain and america that it will cause russia to start bombing targets which have, until now, been “off-limits”
the war is escalating
the war in ukraine is going to drag on
war is good for business
the businesses are owned by the jews
zelensky is a jew
zelensky says, “ukraine is to become part of a Greater Israel“
This is what happens when jews get a foothold in someone else’s land
the russians know only too well what happens when jews are running things
again, we see the jewish trait of gain via violence in europe
it’s going to take food shortages and or rampant inflation to get the british sleeple (people who don’t believe in conspiracy theories) to wake up to Jewish Imperialism
02062022reference file 2 Here(with D-man video track)
at 32:15 “the vaccine is an organ-failure mechanism*
at 30: 36 “they’ve got (in underground facilities) human experimentation, genetic experimentation, hybrid human/alien experimentation, weapons experimentation, super-soldier experimentation…”
at 29:57 “we’ve been taken for a ride… people need to wake up. this is an extinction event”
at 27: 26 “with the help of favourable e.t. tribes helping us…”
at 25: 36 “if we stop the genocide and don’t get to phase two of the vaccine we will move forward and get the reset”
at 24:22 “the netherlands is one of the filthiest nations in the world when it comes to child trafficking”
at 22:55 “nato is slowly being implicated in child trafficking”
at 21:04 “what’s interfering right now is the cash businesses run by the british and american security organisations…”
at 20:37 “we’re not going to get the new global reset until ninety-seven per cent of the cabal (jewish bankers) are driven off…”
at 17:53 “they had to rescue tens of thousands of children from…”
at 16:17 “they (jewish bankers) are scared to death of gold”
11:11 “the nasty guys (jewish bankers) are on the run”
at 10:12 “gigantic network of underground tunnels”
definitions – Arbitrage – Weimar package – Med Bed – cabal (jewish bankers) – Repo market
25062022in today’s world, he/they with the most money calls the shots(for the details of corruption see Here)
bear this in mind as we continue with reference file 1 Here
24052022 to27052022 at 1:12… “essentially, the ukraine war ended on saturday” (the 21st of april 2022)
at 21:25 “the russians are going to take control of the price of gold”
at 28:05… “contrary to what the english-speaking media is saying, ukraine is where the cabal (jewish bankers) “launder” money that comes from the trafficking of people and illegal goods”
at 33:55… “the vatican has hundreds of hit-men”
at 49:23… “there have been torture and satanic rites of captured russian soldiers”
1:02:15 in the near future “russia will send aid-food to the u.s.a.”
at 1:03:55 “putin has saved thousands of children” who were going to be used in child trafficking, and “has rescued hundreds of women” who were to be “slaved out”
at 1:11:58 “the tonnage of heroin being flown out of afghanistan is staggering… it could not have been done without the help of n.a.t.o…”
definitions…Facism – Derivative – Arbitrage – cabal (jewish bankers) – Fractional –
These videos and audiocasts ties covid, the ukraine war, inflation, and just about every other murkygoings-on together
30052022This woman is trying to save your genetic line
14052022 – 22052022it is this website’s joyous privilege to tell you a new genetic line is emerging
it is now recognised there are five genetic lines for mammal man-shaped beings… (eventually there will be one hundred thousand million)
africa man, peking man, india man, aryian man and the, as yet unnamed, new find
24032022T This video will make you realise why hitler initiated ww II… full video 200 Here
These are the real criminals causing all our woes
14052022 to 2005022it appears the time is right to present the facts
three to five thousand years ago the jews were nomads wandering in the deserts of the middle east
the reader will learn from links Aand B that from the start of recorded history, the semites (jews) used violence to get their way
the jews are not the pinnacle of all that is evil
on the contrary, compared to other beings who chose not to exist, they are pussycats
as this website understands things, the number of beings of First-generation who chose not to exist is thought to be between fifty and seventy-five
fifty to seventy-five is an approximation
for mammals, there are twenty-eight orders
for dinosaurs, it is between twenty-five and fifty (speculation)
the number of beings of First-generation who chose not to exist is now at between fifty and seventy-five – see also D-man
let’s keep it simple…
one hundred divided into one hundred thousand million equals 0.000000001
that’s one in every one thousand million people
the reason why an almost abstract number of people can cause so much suffering is due to the parents passing on, via their genes (genetic code) both their physical and cranial characteristics
what could and should be the better part of two billion people living in harmony with the other five classes of man-shaped beings, is now reduced to less than thirty million people causing havoc, via the economic structure they invented, amongst the other five classes of man-shaped beings
the jewish love of money is their downfall
they are about to realise they have, by enrichment through death, entered Devolution
the devolutionary path, among other things, means they are on their way to having an off-white complexion and will no longer be able to blush
if only a 100 people like This one had come forward thirty years ago
we’d be living in a different world now
link E offers you an analogy which will help you to understand why you-know-who allows suffering to happen
the thing is, we are, above all, bound by eternity‘s Law
reducing the expansion of Devolving beings while increasing the expansion of Evolving beings is a hair-thin balancing act: see also Profit
his compulsion to make the lives of devolving beings as full as possible has come at the expense of a slowing down of the expansion of evolving beings
try putting yourself in his position
you have ten children
two of them “like” doing things which reduce the quality and quantity of life
when you stop them they cry incessantly
ask any mother what she would do if two of her children woke up crying, cry all day and fall asleep crying
a wailing child is one of the most heart-wrenching sounds a loving person can experience
our maker’s feeling for life is beyond our capacity to feel
he is giving them their day
it is proposed that we simplify how we assign individuality
there are hundreds of different breeds of dogs but they all spring from the wolf
applying this principle to all mammals brings the “order” of mammals down from more than six thousand to twenty-eight: link D
this is one of those bits of understanding we will get when we are speaking freely with D-man
amongst mammal-man, the writer can identify at least eight different genetic lines that had to be nullified before those who choose to exist could begin extending their orientation to love/life
they are the descendants of one of the one hundred beings who chose not to exist
they are very thin on the ground
some more so than others
keeping it simple, the number of beings of First-generation who chose not to exist is put at 100
the figure is certainly wrong but the circumstances are true
to understand why a person would choose not to exist, the circumstances and the environment at the time the choice was made needs to be explained
it may take years to arrive at
notes for the writer…
nuclear biceps… war-room hostage… the intimidating nature of endlessness… seated upright…
|three global conspiracies|
the Jewish financial conspiracy via the use of Imperialism
the jewish conspiracy is the conspiracy of most concern
among other things, the jews Control the money and the media
if you control the money, your employer can tell you, “if you don’t take the jab, you will lose your job”
every person the writer has asked, “are you prepared to change your job rather than have the jab?”, no one said they would change their job
that’s how easy it is to control you
to be able to point out to people that there is a conspiracy, you need to arm yourself with some facts… see Here and Here and Here
the cover-up of the existence of dinosaur-man Here (china shows Dinosaur Man’s Activities on its version of the six o’clock news Here)
the cover-up of the writer’s existence
Dreams: Latest published dreams
Dreams database 2020 to 2022
Dreams database 2009 through 2019
Using the dreams databases
Introduction to dreams theory
A to Z index of of unfamiliar words and terms used in dreams theory
Exercise Database 2011 to 07122021
Diet database 2011 to today
31012021 the mighty concept: Here
14052021 Sacrificially creative love
10012021 the New Habitation
29102020 Trends of Longevity
the lover (god): HERE
the way to heaven: HERE
some people think they’re god: HERE
700+ Family-Friendly Films
More Family -Friendy Films
02102021pick of the best family-friendly films
monsters inc – Link 1 – Link 2
little manhattan – Link 1 – Link 2
the red balloon – Link 1 – Link 2
sammy going south – Download only
moon pilot – Link 1 – Link 2
big daddy – Link 1 – Link 2
24092021 Family-Friendly Fims 2
24092021 Family-Friendly Radio plays
the covid conspiracy
a bottle of liquid cod liver oil is all you need to defeat the covid virus and all different strains, forms, and variants of it
have a bottle handy, and at the first sign of any of the symptoms follow the instructions in here 100 (below)
taking a teaspoon of cod liver oil with your biggest meal of the day every day should stave it off
follow the instructions in here 100 if you develop any of the symptoms of covid Here 100
the classic symptom associated with covid is a Dry Cough
how this website caught covid Here 101
how the writer overcome covid-19see Here 26
Here 101 above tells you there are people who deliberately spread covid into the population
they are doing it at the behest of the government: see Oligarchs
the fact that neither the bbc 6 O’Clock news nor government ministers have advised the public to take vitamin d even though it is proven to be effective against other forms of the virus, is proof there is a conspiracy
again, Here is why you should NOT take the vaccine
top virologist… “covid is the greatest hoax ever” Here
hundreds of people in one clinic are treated for covid and every single one of them recovered – see Here
the woman in the video above is sacked for telling the public that covid is easily cured Here
more conclusive evidence that covid is a man-made virus and is deliberately being spread into the population Here
Sumerian Language and Literature
Sumerian Art and Architecture
Sumerian Power Struggles
What Happened to Sumer?
Sumer was an ancient civilization founded in the Mesopotamia region of the Fertile Crescent situated between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Known for their innovations in language, governance, architecture and more, Sumerians are considered the creators of civilization as modern humans understand it. Their control of the region lasted for short of 2,000 years before the Babylonians took charge in 2004 B.C.
Sumer was first settled by humans from 4500 to 4000 B.C., though it is probable that some settlers arrived much earlier.
This early population—known as the Ubaid people—was notable for strides in the development of civilization such as farming and raising cattle, weaving textiles, working with carpentry and pottery and even enjoying beer. Villages and towns were built around Ubaid farming communities.
The people known as Sumerians were in control of the area by 3000 B.C. Their culture was comprised of a group of city-states, including Eridu, Nippur, Lagash, Kish, Ur and the very first true city, Uruk. At its peak around 2800 BC, the city had a population between 40,000 and 80,000 people living between its six miles of defensive walls, making it a contender for the largest city in the world.
Each city-state of Sumer was surrounded by a wall, with villages settled just outside and distinguished by the worship of local deities.
Sumerian Language and Literature
The Sumerian language is the oldest linguistic record. It first appeared in archaeological records around 3100 B.C. and dominated Mesopotamia for the next thousand years. It was mostly replaced by Akkadian around 2000 B.C. but held on as a written language in cuneiform for another 2,000 years.
Cuneiform, which is used in pictographic tablets, appeared as far back as 4000 B.C., but was later adapted into Akkadian, and expanded even further outside of Mesopotamia beginning in 3000 B.C.
Writing remains one of the most important cultural achievements of the Sumerians, allowing for meticulous record keeping from rulers down to farmers and ranchers. The oldest written laws date back to 2400 B.C. in the city of Ebla, where the Code of Er-Nammu was written on tablets.
The Sumerians were considered to have a rich body of literary works, though only fragments of these documents exist.
Sumerian Art and Architecture
Architecture on a grand scale is generally credited to have begun under the Sumerians, with religious structures dating back to 3400 B.C., although it appears that the basics of the structures began in the Ubaid period as far back as 5200 B.C. and were improved upon through the centuries. Homes were made from mud bricks or bundled marsh reeds. The buildings are noted for their arched doorways and flat roofs.
Elaborate construction, such as terra cotta ornamentation with bronze accents, complicated mosaics, imposing brick columns and sophisticated mural paintings all reveal the society’s technical sophistication.
Sculpture was used mainly to adorn temples and offer some of the earliest examples of human artists seeking to achieve some form of naturalism in their figures. Facing a scarcity of stone, Sumerians made leaps in metal-casting for their sculpture work, though relief carving in stone was a popular art form.
Under the Akkadian dynasty, sculpture reached new heights, as evidenced by intricate and stylized work in diorite dated to 2100 B.C.
Ziggurats began to appear around 2200 B.C. These impressive pyramid-like, stepped temples, which were either square or rectangular, featured no inner chambers and stood about 170 feet high. Ziggurats often featured sloping sides and terraces with gardens. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon was one of these.
Palaces also reach a new level of grandiosity. In Mari around 1779 B.C., an ambitious 200-room palace was constructed.
READ MORE: 9 Ancient Sumerian Inventions That Changed the World
Sumerians had a system of medicine that was based in magic and herbalism, but they were also familiar with processes of removing chemical parts from natural substances. They are considered to have had an advanced knowledge of anatomy, and surgical instruments have been found in archeological sites.
One of the Sumerians greatest advances was in the area of hydraulic engineering. Early in their history they created a system of ditches to control flooding, and were also the inventors of irrigation, harnessing the power of the Tigris and Euphrates for farming. Canals were consistently maintained from dynasty to dynasty.
Their skill at engineering and architecture both point to the sophistication of their understanding of math. The structure of modern time keeping, with sixty seconds in a minute and sixty minutes in an hour, is attributed to the Sumerians.
Schools were common in Sumerian culture, marking the world’s first mass effort to pass along knowledge in order to keep a society running and building on itself.
Sumerians left behind scores of written records, but they are more renowned for their epic poetry, which influenced later works in Greece and Rome and sections of the Bible, most notably the story of the Great Flood, the Garden of Eden, and the Tower of Babel. The Sumerians were musically inclined and a Sumerian hymn, “Hurrian Hymn No. 6,” is considered the world’s oldest musically notated song.
The very first ruling body of Sumer that has historical verification is the First Dynasty of Kish. The earliest ruler mentioned is Etana of Kish, who, in a document from the time, is credited as having “stabilized all the lands.” One thousand years later, Etana would be memorialized in a poem that told of his adventures in heaven.
The most famous of the early Sumerian rulers is Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, who took control around 2700 B.C. and is still remembered for his fictional adventures in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the first epic poem in history and inspiration for later Roman and Greek myths and Biblical stories.
A devastating flood in the region was used as a pivotal point in the epic poem and later reused in the Old Testament story of Noah.
Sumerian Power Struggles
Somewhere around 2600 B.C., a power struggle erupted between the leaders of Kish, Erech and Ur, which set off a “musical-chairs” scenario of rulers for the region for the next 400 years.
The first conflict resulted in the kingdom of Awan seizing control and shifting the ruling body outside of Sumer until the kingship was returned to the Kish.
The Kish kept control briefly until the rise of Uruk King Enshakushanna, whose brief dynasty was followed by Adabian conqueror Lugalannemundu, who held power for 90 years and is said to have expanded his kingdom up to the Mediterranean. Lugalannemundu also conquered the Gutian people, who lived in the Eastern Iraqi mountains and who would later come to rule Sumer.
In 2500 B.C. the only woman to rule the Sumerians, Kubaba, took the throne. She is the only female listed on the Sumerian King List, which names all rulers of Sumer and their accomplishments. Kubaba’s son, Puzur-Suen, eventually reigned, bringing in the fourth dynasty of Kish, following a brief ascendency of Unzi, the first in the Akshak Dynasty.
This last Kish dynasty ruled for a century before Uruk king Lugal-zage-si ruled for 25 years before Sargon took control in 2234.
Sargon was an Akkadian whose past is shrouded in legends that some claim were ignited by Sargon himself. The claim is that he was the secret child of a high priestess who placed him in a basket and cast him off into a river, a story that was later utilized for Moses in the Old Testament.
Sumerian tradition says that Sargon was the son of a gardener who rose to the position of cupbearer for Ur-Zababa, king of Kish, which was not a servant position but a high official.
Stone relief of Sargon I standing before a tree of life, dating back to 24th-23rd century B.C.
Ann Ronan Pictures/Print Collector/Getty Images
Ur-Zababa was defeated by the king of Uruk, who was, in turn, overtaken by Sargon. Sargon followed that victory by seizing the cities of Ur, Umma and Lagash, and establishing himself as ruler. His militaristic reign reached to the Persian Gulf.
Sargon built the city of Agade as his base, south of Kish, which became an important center in the ancient world and a prominent port. Agade was also home to Sargon’s army, which is considered the first organized standing army in history and the earliest to use chariots in warfare.
Sargon took control of the religious cultures of the Akkadians and the Sumerians, making his daughter Enhedu-anna the head priestess of the moon god cult of Ur. Enheduanna is best remembered for her transcriptions of temple hymns, which she also wrote and preserved in her writings.
Sargon ruled for 50 years, and after his death, his son Rimush faced widespread rebellion and was killed. Rimush’s brother Manishtushu met the same fate.
Sargon’s grandson, Naram-Sin, took the throne in 2292 B.C. Naram-Sin considered himself divine and was leveled with charges of sacrilege.
The Gutians invaded in 2193 B.C. following the reign of the last Akkadian king, Naram-Sin’s son Sharkalisharri. Their era is marked by decentralized chaos and neglect. It was during Gutian reign that the grand city of Agade decayed into wreckage and disappeared from history.
The final gasp of Sumer leadership came in 2100 B.C. when Utuhegal, king of Ur, overthrew the Gutians. Utuhegal’s reign was brief, with Ur-Nammu, the former governor of Ur, taking the throne, starting a dynasty that would rule for about a century.
Ur-Nammu was known as a builder. Figurines from the time depict him carrying building materials. During his reign, he started massive projects to build walls around his capital city, to create more irrigation canals, construct new temples and rebuild old ones.
Ur-Nammu also did the considerable work of constructing an organized and complicated legal code that is considered the first in history. Its purpose was to ensure that everyone in the kingdom, no matter what city they lived in, received the same justice and punishments, rather than rely on the whims of individual governors.
Ur-Nammu also created an organized school system for state administrators. Called the Edubba, it kept an archive of clay tablets for learning.
Ziggurat and ruined walls of the ancient Sumerian city of Ur in modern-day Iraq.
David Lees/Corbis/VCG/Getty Images
What Happened to Sumer?
In 2004 B.C., the Elamites stormed Ur and took control. At the same time, Amorites had begun overtaking the Sumerian population.
The ruling Elamites were eventually absorbed into Amorite culture, becoming the Babylonians and marking the end of the Sumerians as a distinct body from the rest of Mesopotamia.
The Sumerians. Samuel Noah Kramer.
Ancient Mesopotamia: Leo Oppenheim.
Sumer: Cities of Eden. Denise Dersin, Charles J. Hagner, Darcie Conner Johnston.
url page… https://www.worldhistory.org/amorite/
by Joshua J. Mark
published on 28 April 2011
Listen to this article
Available in other languages: French
Statue of Idrimi
Trustees of the British Museum (Copyright)
The Amorites were a Semitic people who seem to have emerged from western Mesopotamia (modern-day Syria) at some point prior to the 3rd millennium BCE. In Sumerian they were known as the Martu or the Tidnum (in the Ur III Period), in Akkadian by the name of Amurru, and in Egypt as Amar, all of which mean ‘westerners’ or ‘those of the west’, as does the Hebrew name Amorite. They worshipped their own pantheon of gods with a chief deity named Amurru (also known as Belu Sadi – ‘Lord of the Mountains’ whose wife, Belit-Seri was ‘Lady of the Desert’), which also became a designation for the people as the Akkadians also referred to them as ‘the people of Amurru’ and to the region of Syria as ‘Amurru’. There is no record of what the Amorites called themselves.
The god Amurru’s association with the mountains and his wife’s with the desert suggests that they may have originated in the area of Syria around Mount Hermon, but this is unsubstantiated. Their origins are unknown, and their precise history, until they settle in cities like Mari, Ebla, and Babylon, is equally mysterious. From their first appearance in the historical record, the Amorites had a profound impact on the history of Mesopotamia and are probably best known for their kingdom of Babylonia under the Amorite king Hammurabi (r. 1792-1750 BCE). The span between 2000-1600 BCE in Mesopotamia is known as the Amorite Period, during which their impact on the region can most clearly be discerned, but there is no doubt that they influenced the people of the various cities long before that time, and their impact was felt long after.
The Amorites first appear in history as nomads who regularly made incursions from the west into established territories and kingdoms. The historian Marc Van de Mieroop writes:
The Amorites were semi-nomadic groups from northern Syria, whom Babylonian literature described in extremely negative terms:
The Amorite, he is dressed in sheep’s skins;
He lives in tents in wind and rain;
He doesn’t offer sacrifices.
Armed vagabond in the steppe,
He digs up truffles and is restless.
He eats raw meat,
Lives his life without a home,
And, when he dies, he is not buried according to proper rituals. (83)
AMORITE MAY NOT HAVE ORIGINALLY REFERRED TO A SPECIFIC ETHNIC GROUP BUT TO ANY NOMADIC PEOPLE WHO THREATENED THE STABILITY OF ESTABLISHED COMMUNITIES.
Van de Mieroop and others point out that ‘Amorite’ may not have originally referred to a specific ethnic group but to any nomadic people who threatened the stability of established communities. Even if this is so, at some point, ‘Amorite’ came to designate a certain tribe of people with a specific culture based on a nomadic lifestyle of living off the land and taking what was needed from the communities they encountered. They grew more powerful as they acquired more land until finally they directly threatened the stability of those in the established cities of the region.
This situation came to crisis during the latter part of the Ur III Period (also known as the Sumerian Renaissance, 2047-1750 BCE), when King Shulgi of the Sumerian city of Ur constructed a wall 155 miles (250 kilometers) long specifically to keep the Amorites out of Sumer. The wall was too long to be properly manned, however, and also presented the problem of not being anchored at either end to any kind of obstacle; an invading force could simply walk around the wall to bypass it, and that seems to be precisely what the Amorites did.
Amorite incursions led to the weakening of Ur and Sumer as a whole, which encouraged the region of Elam to mount an invasion and break through the wall. The sack of Ur by the Elamites in 1750 BCE ended Sumerian civilization, but this was made possible by the earlier incursions of the Amorites and their migrations throughout the region which undermined the stability and trade of the cities.
The Amorites & the Hebrews
At this point in history, according to some scholars, the Amorites play a pivotal role in the development of world culture. The biblical Book of Genesis states that the patriarch Terah took his son Abram (later Abraham), daughter-in-law Sarai, and Lot the son of Haran from Ur to dwell in the land of Haran (11:31). The scholar Paul Kriwaczek writes:
Terah’s family were not Sumerian. They have long been identified with the very people, the Amurru or Amorites, whom Mesopotamian tradition blamed for Ur’s downfall. William Hallo, Professor of Assyriology at Yale University, confirms that ‘growing linguistic evidence based chiefly on the recorded personal names of persons identified as Amorites…shows that the new group spoke a variety of Semitic ancestral to later Hebrew, Aramaic and Phoenician.’ What is more, as depicted in the Bible, the details of the patriarch’s tribal organization, naming conventions, family structure, customs of inheritance and land tenure, genealogical schemes, and other vestiges of nomadic life are too close to the more laconic evidence of the cuneiform records to be dismissed out of hand as late fabrications. (163-164)
The Amorites of the Bible are depicted as pre-Israelite inhabitants of the land of Canaan and clearly separate from the Israelites. In the Book of Deuteronomy, they are described as the last remnants of the giants who once lived on earth (3:11), and in the Book of Joshua, they are the enemies of the Israelites who are destroyed by General Joshua (10:10, 11:8). If modern-day scholarship is accurate about the patriarchs of Israel descending from the Amorites, then there must have been some reason why the Hebrew scribes went to so much trouble to separate their own identity from that of the Amorites.
Ancient Syro-Mesopotamia ca. 1764 BCE
Attar-Aram syria, using a modified map originally made by SÃ©mhur. (CC BY-SA)
It is thought that Terah, in taking his family from Sumer, retained the tribe’s original ethnic identity and brought that cultural heritage with him to Canaan where Abraham, then Isaac, and then Jacob would establish that culture as ‘the children of Israel’ (Jacob’s name). The Book of Genesis tells the story of Joseph, Jacob’s youngest son, and his sojourn in Egypt and rise to power there, and the Book of Exodus relates how the Hebrews were later enslaved by the Egyptians and were led from captivity to freedom back in Canaan by Moses. These biblical narratives would have served to separate the Israelites’ national identity from their actual ancestors by creating new histories that highlighted their uniqueness among the people of the world. Kriwaczek notes that,
only by leaving Ur would Terah and his little family keep their Amorite identity and their Amorite way of life which was so important to subsequent Hebrew history. Had Terah stayed in Sumer, Abram would have shared in a very different destiny…The Amorites would never leave. They would eventually merge into the general population so thoroughly that after a few decades it would be impossible to distinguish them from their predecessors. (165)
The fact that the events related in the Book of Exodus are not substantiated in any other ancient work, or by archaeological evidence of any kind whatsoever, supports the theory that the Hebrew writers of that book created a new narrative to explain their presence in Canaan, one without any connection to the Amorites of Mesopotamia. Throughout the early books of the Old Testament, the Amorites are repeatedly referred to negatively, except for a passage frequently cited from I Samuel 7:14 where some scholars claim that it is written that there was peace between the Amorites and the Children of Israel. But that passage actually says there was peace between the Philistines and the Israelites and does not mention the Amorites at all.
This interpretation of the passage comes from the understanding that ‘Amorite’ had again come to refer to any nomadic people who interfered with established communities. While this may be true, it seems that ‘Amorite’ was even used to reference the early people of the land of Canaan which, according to the Book of Joshua, the Israelites conquered. In virtually every reference, then, the Amorites were considered ‘the other’ by the Hebrew scribes, and this tradition continued for centuries down to the creation of the Talmud in which Jews are prohibited from engaging in Amorite practices. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia:
To the apocryphal writers of the first and second pre-Christian century [the Amorites] are the main representatives of heathen superstition, loathed as idolaters, in whose ordinances Israelites may not walk (Lev. xviii. 3). A special section of the Talmud (Tosef., Shab. vi.-vii. [vii.-viii.]; Bab. Shab. 67a et seq.) is devoted to the various superstitions called “The Ways of the Amorites.” According to the Book of Jubilees (xxix.  11), “the former terrible giants, the Rephaim, gave way to the Amorites, an evil and sinful people whose wickedness surpasses that of any other, and whose life will be cut short on earth.” In the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (lx.) they are symbolized by “black water” on account of “their black art, their witchcraft and impure mysteries, by which they contaminated Israel in the time of the Judges”
The theory that the Amorites, through their appropriation and transmission of Mesopotamian myths, would produce the biblical narratives of the Old Testament, has been challenged repeatedly over the years and, no doubt, will continue to be. There seems to be more evidence to support this theory, however, than disprove it.
Amorite pottery juglet
Trustees of the British Museum (Copyright)
The Amorite Period in Mesopotamia
Following the sack of Ur in 1750 BCE, the Amorites merged with the Sumerian population in southern Mesopotamia. They had already been established in the cities of Mari and Ebla in Syria since 1900 BCE (Mari) and 1800 BCE (Ebla) and had ruled in Babylon since c. 1984 BCE. The Amorite king Sin-Muballit had assumed the throne in Babylon in 1812 BCE and ruled until 1793 BCE when he abdicated. He was succeeded by his son Ammurapi who is better known by his Akkadian name Hammurabi. The fact that an Amorite king ruled in Babylon prior to the fall of Ur supports the claim that not all ‘Amorites’ were Amorites and that, as previously mentioned, the term was used rather loosely to refer to any nomadic tribe in the Near East.
The Amorites of Babylon seem to have been regarded positively in the region, while the roaming Amorites continued to be a source of instability. The Amorites of Babylon, just as those who inhabited other cities, worshipped Sumerian gods and wrote down Sumerian myths and legends. Hammurabi expanded the old city of Babylon and engaged in a number of successful military campaigns (one being the destruction of rival city Mari in 1761 BCE) that brought the vast region of Mesopotamia from Mari to Ur under Babylon’s rule and established the city as the center of Babylonia (an area of land corresponding to modern-day Syria to the Persian Gulf). Hammurabi’s military, diplomatic, and, political skills served to make Babylon the largest city in the world at the time and the most powerful. He was unable, however, to pass these talents on to his son and, after his death, the kingdom he had built began to fall apart.
Remains of the ziggurat attached to the so-called Temple of Lions at Mari
Heretiq (CC BY-NC-SA)
Hammurabi’s son, Samsu-Iluna (r. 1749-1712 BCE) could not continue the policies his father had enacted nor defend the empire against invading forces such as the Hittites and Assyrians. The Assyrians were the first to make incursions and allowed for regions south of Babylon to break away from the empire easily. Hammurabi’s conquest of Eshnunna in the north-east had removed a buffer zone and placed the border in direct contact with tribes such as the Kassites. The greatest blow came in 1595 BCE when Mursilli I of the Hittites (1620-1590 BCE) sacked Babylon and carried away the treasures of the city’s temples and scattered the population, as he had done five years earlier, in 1600 BCE, at Ebla.
The Kassites followed the Hittites in taking Babylon and renaming it, and they, in turn, were followed by the Assyrians. The Amorite Period in Mesopotamia was ended by 1600 BCE, though it is clear through the distinctive Semitic names of individuals on record that Amorites continued to live in the area as part of the general population. Amorites continued to pose problems for the Neo-Assyrian Empire as late as c. 900-800 BCE. Who these ‘Amorites’ were, and whether they were culturally Amorite, is unclear. In time, the cultural Amorites came to be referred to as ‘Aramaeans’ and the land they came from as Aram, possibly from the old designation of Eber Nari. Following the decline of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in c. 600 BCE, Amorites no longer appear under the name ‘Amorite’ in the historical record.